Infrastructure – Physics

For a technocrat or an engineer, Physics is just like a ‘window’ through which he can observe nature in a scientific manner. Throughout its course of development, Physics has evolved through the interlocking of theory, experiment & technology. Physics laboratory can boost the latest facilities installed to enhance the analytical aptitude of Science and Engineering students.

The Physics Laboratory is fully equipped with modern & latest devices & apparatus that enable the students to understand the complex laws of physics. We conduct a number of experiments out of which the core experiments conducted are as follows :

Hall Effect

A magneto-electric effect is used to determine Hall coefficient, carrier density, mobility and nature of charge carriers. By this experiment, we can conclude whether the given specimen is metal, semiconductor or an insulator.

Hysteresis curve tracing

Modern hysteresis loop tracer and CRO are used in this experiment to visualize hysteresis curve of ferromagnetic material on CRO. The shape and width of the hysteresis curve provide valuable information for selection of materials for different industrial uses. This helps in choosing the appropriate magnetic material to make permanent magnet, electromagnet, core of transformer and diaphragm of telephone ear-piece.

Newton’s Rings

This experiment studies the special case of interference of light that gives the basic idea of production of colour pattern on roads during rainy season when oil falls on road. It helps us to determine the wavelength of monochromatic light, refractive index of a liquid and radius of spherical surface.

Specific rotation of cane sugar by Polarimeter

This experiment provides the basic information about determining the amount of sugar present in the urine of a diabetic patient & to calculate the percentage of sugar in a solution in sugar factories.

Fresnel’s Bi-Prism

The Fresnel’s bi-prism consists of two acute angled prisms with their base in contact. It is used in producing coherent sources that helps in determining the wavelength of lights and the thickness of the transparent thin film.

Diffraction Grating

The wavelengths of different spectral lines can be determined by mercury light which is produced due to the diffraction by Diffraction grating.


A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects. The primary use of a sextant is to measure the angle between an astronomical object and the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation.


A flywheel is a mechanical device specifically designed to efficiently store rotational energy. Flywheels resist changes in rotational speed by their moment of inertia. Common uses of a flywheel include: smoothing the power output of an energy source, energy storage systems, delivering energy at rates beyond the ability of an energy source and controlling the orientation of a mechanical system, gyroscope and reaction wheel etc.

Inertia Table

It is a hollow brass tube attached to a rigid support by a wire and carries four cylinders (two solid and two hollow) of equal diameter within it. The setup is used to determine the modulus of rigidity of the material of a given wire by dynamical method.

Bar Pendulum

A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. Pendulum is used in scientific instruments such as accelerometers and seismometers.

Kater’s Pendulum

A Kater’s Pendulum is a reversible free swinging pendulum for use as a gravimeter instrument to measure the local acceleration of gravity. Its advantage is that, unlike previous pendulum gravimeters, the pendulum’s centre of gravity and center of oscillation do not have to be determined, allowing greater accuracy.

Carey Foster’s Bridge

The Carey Foster Bridge is based on the principle of Wheat Stone Bridge and is used to measure low resistances, or to measure small differences between two large resistances.

Melde’s Experiment

The setup is used to determine the frequency of an electrically maintained tuning fork through transverse and longitudinal arrangement. This experiment attempts to demonstrate that mechanical waves undergo interference phenomena.

e/m Experimental Setup

It consists of a highly evacuated glass tube, fitted with electrodes. Electrons are produced by heating a tungsten filament electrically. Electrons are made to accelerate to find the e/m value.

He-Ne Laser and Semiconductor Laser Source Complete Setup

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. This setup helps to demonstrate many experiments viz. to observe the diffraction patterns by holes, single slit, double slit, mesh, grating, grid and opaque spots etc, to demonstrate Young’s fringes, Fresnel’s diffraction, to measure wavelength of light using a millimeter scale as a grating, and fringes of equal inclination.

Tunnel Diode

A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region, made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling. These diodes have a heavily doped p–n junction that is about 10 nm (100 Å) wide.

Thermionic Emission Kit

It consists of a directly heated vacuum diode valve, DC Power supply for plate voltage and ammeter. It is used to determine the work function of material of filament. The work function is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.

Planck’s Constant

Planck’s constant tells us how the energy of individual photons relates to the wavelength of their radiation. The present method required few different colour light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to determine Planck’s constant.

Four Probe Setup

Four Probe Apparatus is widely used for the measurement of energy band gap and resistivity of semiconductors. Here the sample is in the form of a thin wafer, such as a thin semiconductor material deposited on a substrate.

Polarization Setup Kit

This experiment aims to prove the polarization nature of light by Malus Law, determination of plane of polarization of a linearly polarized light, determination of intensity of the light transmitted by the polarization filter as a function of angular position of filter and verification of inverse square law.

Stefan- Boltzmann Constant Setup

The Stefan–Boltzmann Constant also known as Stefan’s constant is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law. The Stefan–Boltzmann constant can be used to measure the amount of heat that is emitted by a blackbody, which absorbs all of the radiant energy that hits it, and will emit all the radiant energy. Furthermore, the Stefan–Boltzmann constant allows for temperature (K) to be converted to units for intensity (W m−2), which is power per unit area.

Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

A Two-Stroke Diesel Engine is a diesel engine that works in two strokes. Diesel engines use compression ignition, a process by which fuel is injected after the air is compressed in the combustion chamber, thereby causing the fuel to self-ignite.

Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

A type of internal combustion engine which ignites fuel by injecting it into hot, high-pressure air in a combustion chamber. A Four-Stroke Diesel Engine resembles a gasoline engine as it works on the four-stroke cycle, that is: admission, compression, power and exhaust.

Diodes Characteristics

Diodes Characteristics

Basic static characteristics of diodes are the forward voltage VF and forward current IF, and the reverse voltage and current VR and IR. The area surrounded by the orange dashed line in the diagram on the right indicates the usable area of rectifying diodes.

FET Characteristics

FET Characteristics

A FET is a three terminal device, having the characteristics of high input impedance and less noise, the Gate to Source junction of the FET is always reverse biased. In amplifier application, the FET is always used in the region beyond the pinch-off.

Logic Gates

Logic Gates

This experiment is used for verification and interpretation of truth tables for AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR Exclusive OR (EX-OR), Exclusive NOR (EX-NOR) Gates.

Half Wave, Full Wave and Bridge Rectifier

Rectifier changes ac to dc and it is an essential part of the power supply. The unique property of a diode, permitting the current to flow in one direction, is utilized in rectifiers.

LCR Series and Parallel Circuit

An LCR Circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L) and a capacitor (C) connected in series or in parallel. The circuit forms a harmonic oscillator for current and resonates in a similar way as an LC circuit.

Thermal Conductivity of Metal Rod

Conduction is a process of heat transfer through solids. When a temperature gradient exists in a body, experience has shown that there is a transfer of heat from the high temperature region to the low temperature region. The aim of this experiment is to measure the temperature gradient along the length of the metal (copper) rod.

Natural Convection

Natural Convection

It is a type of flow of motion of a liquid such as water or a gas such as air, in which the fluid motion is not generated by any external source. The aim of this experiment is to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a given vertical metal cylinder by the natural convection method.

Parallel Counter Flow

In the parallel-flow arrangement the hot and cold fluids enter at the same end, flow in the same direction and leave at the same end. In the counter-flow arrangement the fluids enter at opposite ends, flow in opposite directions and leave at opposite ends.

Photostability Chambers

Photostability Chambers

These chambers are specifically designed to perform near UV and visual light testing with fluorescent lamps. This unit controls light and temperature conditions through an easy-to-use colour touch-screen interface.


It is an insulated enclosure in which temperature, humidity and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, or reproduction. There are three principal kinds of incubators: poultry incubators, infant incubators, and bacteriological incubators.

SCR Characteristics

A SCR is a four layer 3 junction p-n-p-n semiconductor device consisting of at least three p-n junctions, functioning as an electrical switch for high power operations. It has three basic terminals, namely the anode, cathode and the gate mounted on the semiconductor layers of the device.

Single AC voltage regulator

A single-phase AC controller voltage controller is used to vary the value of the alternating voltage after it has been applied to a load circuit. A thyristor is also placed between the load and the constant source of AC voltage.

Stefan’s Law of Radiation

In this experiment we measure how the current through an electric light bulb varies as the applied voltage is changed. This will allow you to establish Stefan’s Law for Black Body Radiation.

UJT Triggering Circuit for Half and Full Control

UJT Triggering Circuit for Half and Full Control

The common application of a unijunction transistor is as a triggering device for different circuits. In this experiment we design a UJT Firing Circuit for both Half and Full Wave Rectifiers and study the performance of it.

Voltage Comparator

A voltage comparator is electronic circuits that compares two input voltages and lets you know which of the two is greater. It’s easy to create a voltage comparator from an op amp, because the polarity of the op-amp’s output circuit depends on the polarity of the difference between the two input voltages.

Voltage Controlled Oscillator

Voltage Controlled Oscillator is a type of oscillator where the frequency of the output oscillations can be varied by varying the amplitude of an input voltage signal. Voltage controlled oscillators are commonly used in frequency, pulse modulators and phase locked loops.

Wien Bridge Oscillator

Wien Bridge Oscillator

One of the simplest sine wave oscillators which uses an RC network in place of the conventional LC tuned tank circuit to produce a sinusoidal output waveform is called a Wien Bridge Oscillator.

Boiling and Condensation

Boiling and Condensation

The Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment is another investigation that examines the flow of a mixture of liquids and the vapors they produce when in contact with hot space system equipment. Cooling hot surfaces in these systems occur when cool liquids vaporize or boil when flowing past the hot surface.



An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed and direction. It is also a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed instrument used in meteorology.

Temperature Controller

Temperature Controller

A Temperature Controller is a device that is used to control a heater or other equipment by comparing a sensor signal with a set point and performing calculations according to the deviation between those values.

Solar Power Meter

A device used to measure the intensity of solar radiation. When the sun shines brightly, just take the device and aim its opening at the sun, and you will see how powerful the sun is.

Digital Thermometer

Digital Thermometer

This device measures the Wireless outdoor and indoor temperature (Fahrenheit or Celsius); and humidity level.

Muffle Furnace

A Muffle Furnace allows rapid high-temperature heating, recovery, and cooling in self-contained, energy-efficient cabinets. A muffle furnace separates the object to be heated from all by-products of combustion from the heat source. In modern electrical furnaces, a radiation or convection energy applies heat to a chamber using a high-temperature heating coil inside insulated material. The insulating material effectively acts as a muffle, preventing heat from escaping.

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